Homer (Greek Homeros, "hostage" or "one who is obliged to follow" is deemed to
be a bard (poet) in the late eighth century BC. It was simply called "the Poet"
by the Ancients. The first two works of Western literature are the Iliad and the
Odyssey are attributed to him. It is still difficult today to establish with
certainty whether Homer was a historical person or a constructed identity, and
if it is the author of two famous epics that are at the foundation of Western
literature. However several Ionian cities (Chios, Smyrna, Colophon or Cumae)
disputed the origin of the bard and tradition individualisait repeating